Cancer develops in the food pipe when the cells lining the tube begin to grow and divide and form a tumour. They typically start in the innermost layer but can spread to the lymph nodes and neighbouring parts of the body. Oesophageal cancer can progress from 0-4 stages.
Surgery: An oesophagectomy removes the tumour, part of the food pipe and the lymph nodes where the cancer could have spread.
Chemotherapy: Oesophageal is not usually diagnosed until it is sufficiently advanced to perform surgery. Hence treatment may start upon a suspicion with chemotherapy and continue if the cancer spreads.
Radiation Therapy: Radiation can be used along with chemotherapy before surgery to shrink it and make it easier to extract.